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Leukine (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor)
Lane Simonian
Posted: Friday, April 2, 2021 10:35 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 5088

Serenoa first discussed Leukine as a possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease several years ago on this forum.  If I remember, the treatment seemed to work better with the antioxidant rutin.  

According to Dr. Potter, "The goal of the clinical trial was to examine the impact of a natural human protein called granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on people living with Alzheimer's disease. We tested Leukine because people with rheumatoid arthritis tend not to get Alzheimer's disease and we had previously found GM-CSF, which is increased in the blood of people with rheumatoid arthritis, reduced amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's mice and returned their poor memory to normal after a few weeks of treatment. Thus, naturally increased levels of GM-CSF in people with rheumatoid arthritis may be one reason that they are protected from Alzheimer's disease. Human GM-CSF is the active compound in the known human drug Leukine, and we are the first to study its effect on people with Alzheimer's disease."

"These results suggest that short-term Leukine treatment leads to innate immune system activation, cognition and memory improvement, and partial normalization of blood measures of amyloid and tau pathology and neuronal damage in participants with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease," said Dr. Potter. He added, "this surprising finding that stimulating the innate immune system may be a new treatment approach induced us to start a larger trial of Leukine in Alzheimer's disease with more participants treated over a longer time. This new trial will be funded by the Alzheimer's Association/Part The Cloud, the University of Colorado, the Global Down Syndrome Foundation and by a large grant recently awarded from the National Institute on Aging".

From BioSpace


Rheumotoid arthritis sufferers also have high levels of uric acid--another compound that increases inflammation in one part of the body, but may have a beneficial effect on the brain.

In all these years of trying to figure how this may work (assuming it continues to work over a longer period of time), only the following makes sense to me: in certain parts of the body, including possibly the brain, GM-CSF decreases oxidation and inflammation by downregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase.

Posted: Monday, April 5, 2021 8:29 PM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 380

Interesting. Looking at immune response in AD makes sense.