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Vitamin E
Posted: Sunday, November 25, 2012 11:02 PM
Joined: 12/6/2011
Posts: 3326

From Alzheimer's Daily News:

(Source: - Emerging new data have shown that the various forms of vitamin E can help prevent the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia.

According to Prof Patrizia Mecocci vitamin E can have a positive effect on these neurodegenerative diseases. He said, "In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, the damage promoted by free radicals, in a phenomenon called 'oxidative stress', plays an important role in causing cell injury". Vitamin E, the main non-enzymatic lipophylic antioxidant in the human body, can help protect the brain from damage mediated by free radicals.


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Posted: Monday, November 26, 2012 10:11 AM
Joined: 12/20/2011
Posts: 217



Very interesting article, Myriam!  Thanks.


Good to see you back to posting here.


Below is related info on the importance of getting the various tocopherol forms of vitamin E rather than just the alpha-tocopherol form that's found in most vitamin E supplements.


And now we see more clearly that it's especially helpful to get not just the various tocopherol forms of E but also the various tocotrienol forms of E.  Not many vitamin E supplements include these forms, but it's easy to order such supplements from, for example.


It's good to see that the researchers are continuing to pursue this line of investigation.



 July 6, 2010

Risk Reduced About 50 Percent

High Blood Vitamin E Decreases Alzheimer’s Risk

A newly released Swedish study has found that high levels of several vitamin E components in the blood are associated with a 45 to 54 percent reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in advanced age.

The study, conducted at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, found that those with the highest blood levels of all eight natural vitamin E components at the beginning of the six year study had the lowest risk of developing dementia.

The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of the several different forms, where most current dietary supplements only contain alpha-tocopherol.

Vitamin E is also found in foods such as sunflower seeds, almonds, spinach, mustard greens and turnip greens.






"... The most significant protective effect was found among people in the top fifth of dietary vitamin E intake (averaging 11.4 IU/d), whose risk of AD was 67 percent lower when compared to people in the group with the lowest vitamin E consumption from food (averaging 6.2 IU/d). (The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin E is 22 IU/d.) No significant change in risk of AD was found when the scientists looked at vitamin E supplements, the other antioxidants and their supplements, or a general multivitamin..."'s/2-07-03%20VitaminE.htm





Snacking on nuts and seeds 'could keep Alzheimer's at bay'

By Fiona Macrae
5th July 2010

Snacking on nuts could help keep the mind sharp into old age, research suggests.

A study has credited vitamin E - found in nuts, seeds and olive oil - with warding off Alzheimer's.

Pensioners with the highest amounts of the 'anti-ageing' vitamin in their blood were around half as likely to develop the devastating disease as those with the least vitamin E in their bodies.

Nuts are a rich source of Vitamin E which may ward off dementia. However, the Food Standards Agency warns that high doses of the vitamin can be harmful.

The finding suggests that nuts and oils could provide a cheap and tasty way of keeping the mind healthy as the years advance.

Alzheimer's affects some 400,000 Britons and around 500 new cases are diagnosed every day.

The Swedish researchers measured vitamin E in samples of blood taken from 232 men and women. All were aged 80 or older at the start of the study and free of dementia.

After six years, 57 had developed Alzheimer's, the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease reports.

However, the disease was around half as common in those boasting the most vitamin E at the start of the study.

Previous research into the subject has produced conflicting results but the researchers believe this could be because it mainly focused on one sub-type of vitamin E, rather than looking at it as a whole.

Lead researcher Dr Francesca Mangialasche, of Stockholm's Karolinska Institute, said:

'Vitamin E is a family of eight natural components, but most studies related to Alzheimer’s disease investigate only one of these components.

'We hypothesised that all the vitamin E family members could be important in protecting against Alzheimer's disease.

'If confirmed, this result has implications for both individuals and society, as 70 percent of all dementia cases in the general population occur in people over 75 years of age, and the study suggests a protective effect of vitamin E against AD in individuals aged 80-plus.'

She added that with previous research linking one particular form of vitamin E found in supplements with premature death, people would be better off getting a mix of the different forms of the compound from their diet.

A vegetable, fruit, nut and olive oil-rich Mediterranean diet could be particularly beneficial.

'Our findings need to be confirmed by other studies but they open up the possibility that the balanced presence of different vitamin E forms can have an important neuroprotective effect.' 




High Plasma Levels of Vitamin E Forms and Reduced Alzheimer's Disease Risk in Advanced Age

Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Publisher IOS Press
ISSN 1387-2877 (Print) 1875-8908 (Online)
Issue Volume 20, Number 4 / 2010
DOI 10.3233/JAD-2010-091450
Pages 1029-1037


In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting.

A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD.

Plasma levels of vitamin E (α-, β-, γ, and δ-tocopherol; α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32–0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23–0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32–0.94) for total vitamin E.

When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of β-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39–0.99), whereas α-tocopherol, α- tocotrienol, and β-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): α-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48–1.09); α-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44–1.11); β-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45–1.06)].

In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age.

The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to α-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated.





 Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change  





Background: High intake of vitamin E from food (tocopherol), but not from supplements (which usually contain α-tocopherol), is inversely associated with Alzheimer disease.

Objective: We examined whether food intakes of vitamin E, α-tocopherol equivalents (a measure of the relative biologic activity of tocopherols and tocotrienols), or individual tocopherols would protect against incident Alzheimer disease and cognitive decline over 6 y in participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project.


Design: The 1993–2002 study of community residents aged ≥65 y included the administration of 4 cognitive tests and clinical evaluations for Alzheimer disease. Dietary assessment was by food-frequency questionnaire... 


Conclusion: The results suggest that various tocopherol forms rather than α- tocopherol alone may be important in the vitamin E protective association with Alzheimer disease. 




Originally posted by: Lane Simonian

Here is some additional information about Vitamin E and Alzheimer's disease. Various compounds (including Omega 3-fatty acids, phenolic compounds in many vegetables, fruits, spices, and essential oils, and in various forms of Vitamin E) inhibit the tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C gamma which along with phospholipase C beta likely start the onset of Alzheimer's disease. Phospholipase C gamma and beta trigger a pathway that leads to the formation of amyloid plaques, the hyperphosphorylation and nitration of tau proteins, and inflammation. These enzymes activate nuclear factor kappa b (via tumor necrosis factor alpha and tyrosine phosphorylation) which leads to the production of superoxide anions and inducible nitric oxide that combine to form peroxynitrites. A study by Ahn suggests that gamma tocotrienol at lower doses inhibits nuclear factor b kappa activation better than gamma tocopherol. On the other hand, both forms are good peroxynitrite scavengers whereas alpha tocopherol is not. This is critical because peroxynitrites oxidize g proteins coupled to receptors involved in short-term memory, mood, sleep, alertness, and smell. Peroxynitrite scavengers lower peroxynitrite levels and partially reverse the oxidation of g proteins, thus improving short-term memory, sleep, mood, alertness, and smell. The optimal combination of gamma tocopherol and gamma tocotrienol (and perhaps other forms of Vitamin E) in foods or supplements still has to be determined. The interesting thing about Alzheimer's disease is that many of the same compounds that delay the onset of the disease (through inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation) can also be used to treat it (through peroxynitrite scavenging) as a previous commentator well-noted.





(mg of vitamin E per kg of oil)

OIL TYPE....Alpha-Tocopherol...Beta–Tocopherol...Gamma-Tocopherol

Wheat Germ.....1179..........................398.................................493

See complete chart here: 



Vitamin E content of foods per 100g...:

Wheat germ oil (215.4 mg)
Sunflower oil (55.8 mg)
Almond oil (39.2 mg)
Sunflower seed (35.17 mg)
Almond (26.2 mg)
Hazelnut (26.0 mg)
Walnut oil (20.0 mg)
Peanut oil (17.2 mg)
Olive oil (12.0 mg)
Poppyseed oil (11.4 mg)
Peanut (9.0 mg)