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"Alzheimer’s 4X less likely with high level of vitamin D – 2 studies"
Posted: Wednesday, April 17, 2013 11:48 AM
Joined: 12/20/2011
Posts: 217





Alzheimer's 4X less likely with high level of vitamin D -
2 studies - April 2012 

Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, April 17, 2013 4:05 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 5140

Vitamin D may be part of the body's defense system against peroxynitrites and this may in part explain its potential role in the protection against Alzheimer's disease.


2004 Jan;143(1):14-22.

1-alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA expression and nitric oxide release in macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells.


Department of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.


We found that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) dose-dependently inhibited iNOS messenger RNA expression of the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and also significantly reduced the gaseous NO release and OONO(-) [ONOO-: peroxynitrite] production.



Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, April 17, 2013 4:36 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 5140

Vitamin D helps to protect against peroxynitrites from ultra violet light from sun exposure.  Another thing of beauty.


Vitamin D has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of disease states including diabetes, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. In these diseases poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have also proved effective as anti-inflammatory agents.


UV irradiation has been demonstrated to induce nitric oxide and peroxynitrite production in keratinocytes () an effect mediated by UVB-mediated activation of enzymes responsible for nitric oxide and superoxide production (). This increase in nitrogen reactive species following UVB exposure is of particular importance in sunburn erythema. Peroxynitrite is a potent activator of PARP ().


The human skin is continually exposed to UV radiation and though it is not surprising that PARP becomes activated in extreme circumstances such as sunburn erythema it is conceivable that even under normal exposure PARP may become activated in skin cells. Therefore, it is likely that skin cells have built-in protection mechanisms to prevent over-activation of PARP, and vitamin D may serve as one such protective mechanism. 


And some more on the role of peroxynitrites and PARP in various disease. 


2008 Jul;173(1):2-13. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2008.080019. Epub 2008 Jun 5.

Role of the peroxynitrite-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase pathway in human disease.


Section on Oxidative Stress and Tissue Injury, Laboratory of Physiologic Studies, National Institutes of Health/NIAAA, 5625 Fishers Lane, MSC-9413, Bethesda, MD 20892-9413, USA.


Throughout the last 2 decades, experimental evidence from in vitro studies and preclinical models of disease has demonstrated that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including the reactive oxidant peroxynitrite, are generated in parenchymal, endothelial, and infiltrating inflammatory cells during stroke, myocardial and other forms of reperfusion injury, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, cardiomyopathies, circulatory shock, cardiovascular aging, atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling after injury, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative disorders. Peroxynitrite and other reactive species induce oxidative DNA damage and consequent activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), the most abundant isoform of the PARP enzyme family. PARP overactivation depletes its substrate NAD(+), slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport, and ATP formation, eventually leading to functional impairment or death of cells, as well as up-regulation of various proinflammatory pathways. In related animal models of disease, peroxynitrite neutralization or pharmacological inhibition of PARP provides significant therapeutic benefits. Therefore, novel antioxidants and PARP inhibitors have entered clinical development for the experimental therapy of various cardiovascular and other diseases. This review focuses on the human data available on the pathophysiological relevance of the peroxynitrite-PARP pathway in a wide range of disparate diseases, ranging from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, myocarditis, heart failure, circulatory shock, and diabetic complications to atherosclerosis, arthritis, colitis, and neurodegenerative disorders.



Peroxynitrite is the main cause of many of these disease and peroxynitrite scavengers (such as curcumin, true cinnamon, ginger, and rosemary) are often used as treatments (or suggested as treatments) for these diseases. 

Posted: Monday, September 16, 2013 4:41 PM
Joined: 9/13/2013
Posts: 112


From UCLA scientists, how Vitamin D works on clearing up amyloid beta plaques. Initially, it was a study with curcumin. And a subsequent study that explained the actual mechamism by which Vitamin D played a major role in clearing the amyloid plaques. 

Vitamin D, curcumin may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's (UCLA – 1st news release, 7/15/2009) 

Scientists pinpoint how vitamin D may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's 

(UCLA - 2nd news release, 3/6/2012)