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White ginseng and Alzheimer's disease
Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, February 22, 2017 10:30 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 5140


White ginseng is dried in the sun and is less potent and probably less effective for Alzheimer's disease than its steamed cousins--Korean red ginseng and heat processed ginseng. Nevertheless this mouse study suggests the ways in which ginseng works against Alzheimer's disease.

White Ginseng Protects Mouse Hippocampal Cells Against Amyloid-Beta Oligomer Toxicity

 
Amyloid-beta oligomer (ABO) is a soluble oligomer form of the AB peptide and the most potent amyloid-beta form that induces neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the effect of dried white ginseng extract (WGE) on neuronal cell damage and memory impairment in intrahippocampal ABO (10 micrometer)-injected mice. Mice were treated with WGE (100 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 12 days after surgery. WGE improved memory impairment by inhibiting hippocampal cell death caused by ABO. In addition, ABO-injected mice treated with WGE showed restoration of reduced synaptophysin and choline acetyltransferase intensity and lower levels of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 in the hippocampus compared with those of vehicle-treated controls. These results suggest that WGE reverses memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease by attenuating neuronal damage and neuroinflammation in the ABO-injected mouse hippocampus.

Amyloid oligomers are only one source of oxidative stress in human beings whereas they are usually the primary source of oxidative stress in mice.  The key is to find more potent antioxidants to treat the disease in people.  Steaming increases the peroxynitrite scavenging capabilities of ginseng.  Thus, steamed forms of ginseng appear to provide an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

To investigate whether or not the radical scavenging activity of ginseng is enhanced by heat processing, we evaluated the scavenging effects of white ginseng (WG), red ginseng (RG, steamed ginseng at 98-100 degrees C) and sun ginseng (SG, steamed ginseng at 120 degrees C) on nitric oxide, superoxide (O2-), hydroxyl (*OH) radicals and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Heat-treated ginseng (RG and SG) showed better O2-, ONOO- and *OH-scavenging activities than WG. In particular, the radical scavenging activities of SG were stronger than those of RG. Furthermore, we evaluated the radical scavenging activities of maltol, salicylic acid, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, known as principal antioxidant components of ginseng [and ferulic acid and syringic acid], in WG, RG and SG, and also investigated their contents. Of the tested compounds, maltol, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid exhibited ONOO(-)-scavenging activity. In addition, maltol and p-coumaric acid showed strong *OH-scavenging activity. Moreover, the content of maltol was remarkably increased in a temperature-dependent manner by heat processing, implying that maltol was closely related to the radical scavenging activity of heat-processed ginseng. These findings indicate that SG may act as a free radical scavenger and protect against damage caused by oxidative stress related with these radicals.

Improvement of Cognitive Deficit in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients by Long Term Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng

A 24-week randomized open-label study with Korean red ginseng (KRG) showed cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. To further determine long-term effect of KRG, the subjects were recruited to be followed up to 2 yr. Cognitive function was evaluated every 12 wk using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the Korean version of the Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) with the maintaining dose of 4.5 g or 9.0 g KRG per d. At 24 wk, there had been a significant improvement in KRG-treated groups. In the long-term evaluation of the efficacy of KRG after 24 wk, the improved MMSE score remained without significant decline at the 48th and 96th wk. ADAS-cog showed similar findings. Maximum improvement was found around week 24. In conclusion, the effect of KRG on cognitive functions was sustained for 2 yr follow-up, indicating feasible efficacies of long-term follow-up for Alzheimer’s disease.


Heat-processed ginseng enhances the cognitive function in patients with moderately severe Alzheimer's disease.

OBJECTIVES:

Ginseng has been reported to improve cognitive function in animals and in healthy and cognitively impaired individuals. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a heat-processed form of ginseng that contains more potent ginsenosides than raw ginseng in the treatment of cognitive impairment in patients with moderately severe Alzheimer's disease (AD).

METHODS:

Forty patients with AD were randomized into one of three different dose groups or the control group as follows: 1.5 g/day (n = 10), 3 g/day (n = 10), and 4.5 g/day (n = 10) groups, or control (n = 10). The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to assess cognitive function for 24 weeks.

RESULTS:

The treatment groups showed significant improvement on the MMSE and ADAS. Patients with higher dose group (4.5 g/day) showed improvements in ADAS cognitive, ADAS non-cognitive, and MMSE score as early as at 12 weeks, which sustained for 24-week follow-up.

DISCUSSION:


These results demonstrate the potential efficacy of a heat-processed form of ginseng on cognitive function and behavioral symptoms in patients with moderately severe AD. 

 


The_Sun_Still_Rises
Posted: Thursday, February 23, 2017 8:56 AM
Joined: 7/24/2015
Posts: 3020


I am willing try this Lane, I currently have some money buy it....but not much brain figure how do that.   Could you post me a link for a resource that you consider the best of the best source for this...and what you would recommend for dosing.  Note, that I am inclined starts small and then increase. 

Many Thanks.

<3


Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, February 23, 2017 9:22 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 5140


The powdered from of Korean red ginseng seems to work the best.  In the study with Korean red ginseng, people with Alzheimer's disease taking 4.5 grams showed improvements in cognition at one year whereas those taking 9 grams showed the same improvements at 24 weeks  Heat processed ginseng is more expensive--it produces quicker improvements in cognition (12 weeks) but in the end no greater improvements in cognition than Korean red ginseng.  Unlike Korean red ginseng, however, the higher dose of heat processed ginseng (4.5 grams versus 3 and 1.5 grams) led to improvements in behavior at 12 weeks.  Unless behavior is in issue for an individual, the Korean red ginseng will produce the same results just over a longer period of time.  The main side effect that I have seen for ginseng is an initial increase in blood pressure.  But if you see this or any other side effect, the best thing to do is to suspend its use.

I  just looked through some companies selling Korean red ginseng.  A company called Auragin had some good reviews.

Best wishes to you Sun.  You are always try to figure things out.


The_Sun_Still_Rises
Posted: Thursday, February 23, 2017 5:14 PM
Joined: 7/24/2015
Posts: 3020


I have low blood pressure so should not be issue me...often 95/60. 

<3


Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, February 23, 2017 8:37 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 5140


You should be all right, Sun.  Some studies suggest that long term use of ginseng at high doses may actually lower blood pressure in some people.  The advice is for people with low blood pressure to be cautious while taking ginseng.  Maybe take your blood pressure to make sure it is not having any negative effect.
Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, February 23, 2017 9:05 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 5140


I am running into some contradictory information.  Peroxynitrite can contribute to low blood pressure so in those cases a peroxynitrite scavenger such as Korean red ginseng should be beneficial rather than harmful.

Blood pressure is naturally low in some people and this can be hereditary – for example, because your kidneys are particularly good at flushing excess sodium from your body. If you don’t get symptoms, hypotension does not necessarily need treating. Some people develop persistent headaches, fatigue, anxiety, poor concentration, however, and cannot function properly at work or socially. This is known as hypotension syndrome and needs to be resolved so you can get on with a normal life.

Korean ginseng is often recommended as a treatment for hypotension syndrome. Herbalists class it as an ‘adaptogen’ as it helps the body adapt to physical or emotional stress, reduces fatigue and has a normalising action on many body systems, including the circulation. Traditionally, ginseng is not usually taken for more than 6 weeks without a break.

You might start with the lower dose (4.5 grams per day) and precede cautiously.