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Re: Aromatherapy
1Day@aTime
Posted: Monday, May 13, 2013 7:33 PM
Joined: 8/26/2012
Posts: 257


My husband has EOAD. I noticed many years ago, that his "smeller" didn't work as good as it should and just kept getting worse. Mine, on the other hand, is at the other extreme of that spectrum (my sense of smell is so keen, it's painful at times!). 


I've noticed my husband's sense of smell going fast, and he also smells stuff that isn't there or that is nothing like what it should smell like. The more I read about aromatherapy, the more I want to make it available for my husband to try.


Is there a complete list of aromatherapy oils that should be used in EOAD? Is there a rule of thumb for which essential oils should be sniffed morning, which ones in the afternoon, and which ones at night before bedtime?  Or should they all be sniffed all at once (individually) 3 times per day? Short sniff or long "take a deep breath through the nose" kind of sniff? Also, do you look for and buy what is labeled "Essential Oils" or does it have to be a "therapeutic grade oil" type?  Does it need to be organic?  Are there certain precautions?  Thanks.


P.S. I tried to do a search on here of Aromatherapy in all the boards, but came up with nothing. I must be doing something wrong, because I know I have seen this discussion come up before.



Lane Simonian
Posted: Tuesday, May 14, 2013 3:16 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


Here is a list of essential oils (not a complete list) that limits a form of damage (tyrosine nitration) that leads to neuronal cell death in all patients with Alzheimer's disease (from most effective to least effective). 

 

Bay Laurel 

Coriander 

Sweet Fennel 

Mint 

Thyme 

Rosemary 

Oregano 

 

Other oils to consider for cognition are cinnamon leaf, sage, clove, basil, lemon balm, and lemon.  Your husband can smell two or three of these oils each morning (inhale for a few seconds).  Too much more than this may be overload.  As my mother sometimes used to say when smelling the oils, "that almost knocked me out."   As Myriam cautioned, make sure that the essential oils does not get on the skin because it can burn the skin. 

 

Most of the oils that enhance cognition contain eugenol.  This study indicated that eugenol can potentially be used to treat Alzheimer's disease. 

 

Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) is a fragrant compound that is commonly contained in various sorts of plants, especially in spices and medicinal herbs. Eugenol has been used for dental analgesic, which also has anticonvulsive and anti-microbial activities. Besides, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of eugenol are known. A body of evidence suggests that eugenol can be used as a drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). According to recent reports, the extract of a medicinal plant Rhizoma Acori Graminei (RAG) alleviates neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) in vitro and the active constituent of RAG is eugenol. Eugenol inhibits Aβ-induced excessive influx of calcium ion into neurons that causes neuronal death. Moreover, eugenol possesses an antidepressant-like activity. Eugenol, like other antidepressants, increases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in the hippocampus, which is necessary for an antidepressant to exhibit its activity. Furthermore, eugenol inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and may restore monoamines that are decreased in the brain of patients with depression. Thus, eugenol can be a good medicine for AD and depression. Here we suggest that eugenol and its analogs can be used also for other diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) including Parkinson's disease (PD). This article reviews the previous investigations concerning effects of eugenol including its analogs on the CNS and describes perspectives of this highly potential compound.

 

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cbc/2006/00000002/00000001/art00005 

 

Eugenol can cause increases in adrenaline and noradrenaline and this is a particular problem in some Alzheimer's patients who already have high levels of these neurotransmitters as it increases anxiety and agitation (and in conjunction with some other drugs it may even increase hallucinations).   

 

The following are some of the essential oils that reduce agitation: 

 

Lavender 

Rose 

Patchouli 

Ylang Ylang 

Chamomile 

Lemon Balm 

Orange 

 

These oils can be taken in the evening.  In the clinical trial with aromatherapy, people with dementia smelled rosemary and lemon in the morning and lavender and orange in the evening.  The researchers concluded that: 

 

Conclusions: In conclusion, we found aromatherapy an efficacious non-pharmacological therapy for dementia. Aromatherapy may have some potential for improving cognitive function, especially in AD patients.

 

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1479-8301.2009.00299.x/full 

 

Lemon balm is unique in that it contains one compound that increases cognition (eugenol) and another that increases relaxation (ferulic acid).  This study was for a tincture of lemon balm essential oil (Melissa officinalis), aromatherapy is safer, however. 

 

CONCLUSIONS:

Melissa officinalis extract is of value in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and has a positive effect on agitation in such patients.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12810768 

 

One good thing is that it does not matter if a person has an altered/damaged sense of smell or not, the compounds still enter the part of the brain most damaged by Alzheimer's disease (the hippocampus).  Moreover, eugenol partially reverses not only the damage done to a receptor involved in short-term memory (muscarinic acetylcholine), it also reverse damage to receptors involved in smell (olfactory). Other receptors that fall into the same category (g protein-coupled receptors) influence sleep, mood, social recognition, and alertness. 

 

There was considerable discussion of aromatherapy on these boards in March and April.  I have not been able to located all the discussions, but these are some of the things that stood out to me.  One person had a type of Alzheimer's disease that affected vision. He began to put his clothes on right and when asked said he was able to do so because he could see better.  One mother remembered her mother-in-law's name and remembered that the home had a basement (I remember once my mother said my sister's house had an upstairs and a downstairs and I said how did you know that and she said I have been living her for awhile now--so both her sense of place and time had improved).  Another mother became more socially engaged with the family and started washing dishes again.  Some caregivers noted an increase in restive/resistant behavior--which one study linked to increase alertness.  Agitation and breathing problems were two negative side effects observed by loved ones on this board. 

 

As far as where to buy essential oils, there are some big companies such as Young Living and doTerra.  I buy them from local health foods stores and if they don't have a particular oil, I buy from smaller companies (like Ananda Apothecary out of Denver or Dandelion Botanical out of Seattle). If you can find organic essential oils that may be best as pesticide contamination is sometimes cited as a concern.  If it says 100% pure or therapeutic grade oil that should be good (although it might not be the truth).  Bottles with the Latin name on them are sometimes suggested as indication of possible purity.  If all the oils are the same price that is a bad sign as some are more expensive to make. 

 

There is a particular reason why certain oils increase cognition and others increase relaxation.  It is a matter of finding the right combination for each person. 

 

 


Myriam
Posted: Tuesday, May 14, 2013 3:53 PM
Joined: 12/6/2011
Posts: 3326


Thank, again, Lane.
onward
Posted: Tuesday, May 14, 2013 7:03 PM
Joined: 12/20/2011
Posts: 217


Lane, I have a question about dosage with the essential oils.  Maybe we've discussed this before but I'd appreciate hearing you comment again. 

 

You suggest using 2 or 3 oils in the morning and maybe also 2 or 3 more in the evening, with each being inhaled for just a few seconds. 

 

Yet at least some of the studies we read are having people inhaling the oils for multiple hours daily, though apparently at much lower concentrations. 

 

I suspect that for most caregivers, it's much easier and more convenient to do the brief inhalations twice daily than to have to fool around with equipment (a diffuser or whatever).  (I have no experience with diffusers.) 

 

You mention the possibility of "overload"... 

 

Yet might brief inhalations more frequently give better results than are gotten with just a few seconds morning and evening? 

Have any further thought on this?  Thanks 

 


Lane Simonian
Posted: Tuesday, May 14, 2013 7:44 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


My suspicion is that inhaling from a bottle for a few seconds a day allows more of the beneficial compounds to enter the brain than diffusing it for several hours a day (and it certainly is easier).  Some day I would like to see a scientific study to see which method or methods of delivering the essential oils is most effective.  

 

There is a certain theory of essential oils that less is more--that because the compounds are so concentrated prolonged direct exposure is dangerous  (perhaps even leading to a coma).  I don't know what the tipping point is or to say it another way I don't know what the optimal exposure is.  Perhaps, giving the essential oils to smell for brief periods of time several times a day would produce better results.  I cannot guarantee that it would be absolutely safe, but it very well may be for most people. 

 

Another question that goes through my mind is can the oils be balanced so that the stimulatory effects of one oil can be offset by the relaxing effects of another oil. In someone without much agitation, that seems likely, but in someone with considerable agitation I am not sure.   

 

Thanks, Myriam and Onward and to everyone else here for never giving up the fight against this disease. 


1Day@aTime
Posted: Wednesday, May 15, 2013 10:12 AM
Joined: 8/26/2012
Posts: 257


I used to grow different herbs in the yard.  Now my yard thrives off neglect if indeed it thrives at all.  I absolutely love the smell of lemon balm! I used to take a leaf and crush it and smell it til the fragrance dissipated. After researching a little, I discovered that lemon balm inhibits thyroid medication and the normal functions of a thyroid.  Since both my husband and I take thyroid medication, this would not be a good choice to use on a regular basis.  Please remember to consider your LO's medical issues before diving into aromatherapy.
Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, May 15, 2013 10:38 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


This is a good reminder, 1Day@atime.  Lemon balm is not recommended for anyone on thyroid medications (good research) or taking benzodiazepenes (such as Ativan).  Essential oils can interfere with certain medications or over-enhance the effects of others.  A qualified doctor or aromatherapist should be able to tell you which essential oils are safe to take with certain medications and which are not. 

 

I like thinking about the smell of lemon balm and your former herb garden. 


The1&onlygirl
Posted: Wednesday, May 22, 2013 3:38 PM
Joined: 5/13/2013
Posts: 315


This is a great discussion about Aromatherapy... glad I found it. Thanks Myriam and Lane, Onward for adding your knowledge.

 

 



scma_2007
Posted: Friday, September 13, 2013 12:54 PM
Joined: 9/13/2013
Posts: 112


@Lane - I like to know more about aromatheraphy you are doing. I would like to treat my parents using this method. I am sure this will help with my parents' AD as it did with your mom.  

 

 You had it in your profile

 

 "Four years ago, my sisters and I began to use rosemary essential oil (via aromatherapy) to help her. This year we have used several other essential oils including clove, cinnamon leaf, oregano, thyme, sage, laurel, and peppermint.".

 

Now, in this thread, you listed exactly the choices for a.m. and p.m. as your further research had shown.

 

I am not that familiar with aromatheraphy - here's what I saw in webmd "The oils are mixed with another substance (such as oil, alcohol, or lotion) and then put on the skin, sprayed in the air, or inhaled.".

 

Also, the link of the study showed in this thread also mentions the use of diffuser.

 

While ONWARD said "You suggest using 2 or 3 oils in the morning and maybe also 2 or 3 more in the evening, with each being inhaled for just a few seconds. ".

 

 How is this exactly done? We have to rely on our caregivers to do this so a detail description would help. I believe your method is simple. Diffuser would add more complications as Onward mentioned. Please explain in detail. Thanks.  

 

 


Lane Simonian
Posted: Friday, September 13, 2013 3:13 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


I am starting to feel more confident that direct inhalation may be the best method for using essential oils for Alzheimer's disease, although people have had success with diffusers and massage oils (an essential oil diluted with a carrier oil such as coconut oil or jojoba oil). 

 

For direct inhalation, just take the cap off, but the bottle close to the person's nose (but avoid direct contact as some of the essential oils can sting the skin), and have them sniff it for a few seconds.  Then put the cap back on the bottle.  This can be done at least twice a day, maybe more. 

 

My mother sometimes had troubles with the concept of sniffing, but if you demonstrated it to her she usually got it.  It took about a month to see improvements (she was probably late stage six Alzheimer's when we began).  She asked why I had moved something on her shelf and why I had been giving it to her to smell every day for a month.  These are three areas where she improved--a better sense of place, object recognition, and time.  She no longer got disoriented traveling, no longer said this is not my home, sometimes even said we are almost home before getting to the driveway, she identified a flower as a rose, and asked if a salt shaker contained sugar.  She also basically stopped having delusions and wandering.  She no longer asked why her parents were being left out in the cold, no longer suspected the neighbor of stealing things, and no longer viewed her brother as an impostor. 

  

My mother had Alzheimer's disease for eight years, with aromatherapy over the last five years she got better.  Eventually, though, two other peroxynitrite-related disease--severe esophagitis and atrial fibrilation took her life.  We could not figure out a way to reverse the latter two diseases; maybe they were too far advanced by the time we tried.  She briefly took Fosamax in the late 1990s and I think this contributed to all three diseases (I finally just updated my profile).

 

No one should have to die from this disease.  The aromatherapy will not cure the disease, but with the right oils, doses, and in the absence of some other medications, it should at least stop the progression of the disease and in some small but significant ways partially reverse it. 

 

 


scma_2007
Posted: Saturday, September 14, 2013 8:19 AM
Joined: 9/13/2013
Posts: 112


 

Lane,

 

Thank you so much for detailing your aromatheraphy technique. This helps a lot. I will pass this info to our caregivers. My AD parents are overseas and I  connect with my sister through Skype to relay any new info to the caregivers. I will surely update on this post about any progress. It may take a month or so like your experience. 

 

I am sorry to hear that your mom has left. But I am glad that her last years were good and happy because of aromatherapy. You have clearly described the reawakening  of  many of her abilities that were deemed lost. They were  amazing.

 

 


Lane Simonian
Posted: Saturday, September 14, 2013 10:23 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


I hope to hear good news regarding the use of aromatherapy for your parents.  I like all the information that you are bringing to us and your innovative spirit.

Thank you so much for your sympathy and for your comments regarding my mother.  For her to come partially back from the depths of this disease was something we all cherished.  When the smiles replaced the blank stares, I saw the essence of my mother returned. 


Vita99
Posted: Saturday, September 14, 2013 10:45 AM
Joined: 9/4/2012
Posts: 469


Mom has been on aroma therapy now for about one month.  She is holding her own most of the time.  She developed UTI yesterday, we went to the doctor for Cipro.  She was more confused yesterday than usual as can be expected.  She enjoys sniffing the oils.   It is now almost 3 years since I noticed a change in her cognition.  She has been on coconut oil pills for about 10 days, 1000-2000 mg per day.  She has spinal stenosis which causes her to spend too much time in bed and she  craves sweets and is gaining weight.  I dont feel she should be denied the sweets at age 76 and she feels the same.  If I had to put her in an AD stage it would be between 2 and 3.  According to what I have read on this board early stage can last for 8 years or more.  Mom will not follow Best Practices so I will keep on with aroma therapy, coconut oil pills and will  add powdered magnesium to a smoothie for he once a week or so.  She will not consent to it more than once a week  .
scma_2007
Posted: Wednesday, October 9, 2013 10:47 PM
Joined: 9/13/2013
Posts: 112


@Lane

 

 Just reporting on the aromatherapy for my parents who have AD. We have them use rosemary and peppermint in the a.m. and lavender and orange in the p.m. They are into their third week. 

 

My father (last stage, tube feeding) has definitely been more alert, gone are the empty/spacey look. Now, he smiles at the CGs showing awareness of their presence. He is able to eat oatmeal from a bowl which he has not done since last December, he used to spit out anything that has solids. He is able to legibly write his name.  These are remarkable improvements.

 

 But for my mother (moderate stage), it's rather complicated. as her sleeping problem (awake the whole night) has returned due to change of CG personnel. It's bothering her to see a new person in their apartment at night. So we can't tell. We will continue to observe. 

 



Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, October 9, 2013 11:21 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


Really pleased to hear the news about you Dad.  Wish the news for your mother was better.  I sometimes underestimate the effects that changes in routine can have.


Vita, I missed your post before.  I hope that the aromatherapy will show some positive effects.  I know that some of the medications can play havoc with a person even though sometimes they may be a necessary evil.


Vita99
Posted: Thursday, October 10, 2013 6:31 AM
Joined: 9/4/2012
Posts: 469


Hi folks.  The UTI we resolved quickly with Cipro but mom fell  one week after finishing the meds.  Her behavior began to change about 10 days after the fall.  She is unfocused.  She is not talking sensibly most of the time, just sort of chattering in a hyperactive way.  Then she falls asleep.  I do not know whether to attribute these new behaviors to the shock of having had the fall and the painful sprained wrist which resulted or the possibility that she took a step farther into AD.  Only time will tell. 

 

 The new 7 stage system is more difficult for me to decipher than the old 3 stage system.  It is much more vague.  When my stepfather stepped into stage 2 there was a dramatic change in him.  We really did not suspect AD before he entered stage 2.  He had a stroke 6 years prior so  we presumed his cognitive deficits were a result of the stroke.  He was quite stable for these 6 years. 

 

Mom  will no longer take the coconut oil pills, they cause her stomach distress.  I have been so busy I have not stressed the sniffing of the oregano oil. I do want to continue with the aromatherapy, she is quite happy to sniff, especially lavender.


Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, October 10, 2013 10:00 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


I was just talking to my sister last night and she knew of two people who had suffered muscular problems after taking Cipro.  We looked up the side effects and another one was agitation.  This may just be a temporary effect of Cipro. Perhaps, it is the shock and pain following the fall.


A friend has used coconut oil as a massage oil to get around the stomach upset often caused by coconut oil.  Like lavender essential oil aromatherapy, coconut oil is supposed to have a calming effect. 


I hope that your mother improves over the next few weeks.  The sudden change in behavior makes me think it is something other than the progression of the disease.


terromari
Posted: Friday, October 11, 2013 6:54 AM
Joined: 12/15/2011
Posts: 859


Using rosemary and lemon when I get to nh and lavender when I leave, usually three hours layer. Is that too short a gap? I have peppermint and will try substituting that for rosemary and see if there is a difference.
Lane Simonian
Posted: Friday, October 11, 2013 10:47 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


If it does not cause agitation, rosemary and peppermint is a good combination.  Bay laurel might be another good essential oil to try.

Lemon balm is also good, but it is expensive. Lavender is great for relaxation.


I don't know the optimum time to wait between administering the essential oils.  I think that three hours is ok.  What I would love to see is studies of the effectiveness of many different essential oils, for different lengths of inhalation, at different intervals, but few if any exist so I just have to guess based on other studies that don't directly address these questions.


Lane Simonian
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2013 12:18 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


I have come to a conclusion that I probably should have come to long ago: most of the essential oils that improve cognition only do so when a person with Alzheimer's disease is not under a great deal of stress/anxiety. 

Stimulating essential oils may increase anxiety without increasing cognition.


I don't know if the combination of stimulating with relaxing oils would take care of this problem.  Lemon balm which includes eugenol (a compound which usually improves cognition) and perhaps ferulic acid (a compound that usually improves behavior) might be a good one to try where agitation is an issue (although lemon balm does not interact well with Ativan and other benzodiazepines).


Other compounds that may reduce anxiety are coconut oil (maybe as a massage oil to avoid stomach upset), glucuronolactones, acetyl-l-carnitine, and again ferulic acid. 


This is a huge work in progress for me.  Hopefully, some day I will get to the end. 


onward
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2013 5:51 PM
Joined: 12/20/2011
Posts: 217


Lane Simonian wrote:
 

... coconut oil (maybe as a massage oil to avoid stomach upset).. 


 

 

 

Lane (or anyone),

 

are there any reports, even just anecdotal, of anyone's memory improving from just applying coconut oil (or MCT oil) to the skin?

Recently I hunted for such info but couldn't find it.  I'd be interested to know if anyone's tried this.

 


Lane Simonian
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2013 8:27 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


The closest I can come is from my friend from Brazil who switched to massage with coconut oil because of the stomach upset that drinking the coconut oil was causing his aunt.  However, he is also using three other substances that are peroxynitrite scavengers: glucuronolactones, glucosamine sulfate, and acetyl-l-carnitine, so it is impossible to know what if any difference the coconut oil via massage is making.  If anyone has tried this as a stand alone, it would be interesting to know the results.

http://forum.alzheimers.org.uk/showthread.php?51777-Help...-My-partner-has-dementia-and-I-just-cant-cope/page3 (last entry)


onward
Posted: Monday, October 14, 2013 8:21 AM
Joined: 12/20/2011
Posts: 217


Thanks, Lane. 

 

 

 I also came across this intriguing suggestion posted by Dr. Mary Newport on her blog:


QUOTE:
 

"Coconut oil absorbs very quickly into the skin. It would be interesting to check ketone levels before and 2-3 hours after a coconut oil massage. If anyone is game, there are two readily available ketone meters used by diabetics, Precision Xtra and NovaMax Plus. I have found the ketone strips online for about $3 each through www.amazon.com. The same meter can be used to check glucose."

http://coconutketones.blogspot.com/2012/05/als-patient-two-year-update-on-coconut.html 

 

 

Maybe someone here would be interested to try this and report back with the results. 


Lane Simonian
Posted: Monday, October 14, 2013 1:18 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


Thanks Onward for this very useful information.  I had not seen it before. Especially if someone is already using coconut oil, they might see if using it as a massage oil is more effective than taking it orally. 


Vita99
Posted: Tuesday, October 15, 2013 5:19 AM
Joined: 9/4/2012
Posts: 469


Actually I'm surprised that this has not been tested before, considering how many people are interested in the medicinal use of coconut oil.  
Biff Calhoun
Posted: Tuesday, October 15, 2013 11:55 PM
Joined: 8/20/2013
Posts: 56


Lane - Good stuff here and the other thread on Aromatherapy as well as your other insights on the other threads.  You certainly present a case for perioxynitrate scavengers!

 

I have been reading these posts looking for something that will help.  I confess that without a course or two in basic bio-chemistry or cell biology the "workings" of this disease remain a mystery.  Yeah, I get the plaques and amyloid beta proteins...  Yeah, I have seen the pictures with cell chemistry diagrams - I might as well be looking at Chinese characters.

 

Anyway, I digress, while being a scientist, just not THAT kind of scientist I am intrigued at the possibilities of natural remedies or combinations.  I asked the Neurologist about some of the remedies listed here and got a tacit OK to try natural remedies.  I guess they can't hurt, used responsibly.

 

So the downside seems low to me faced with a disease with no cure and a relentless progression.  So why not "experiment" and test things out in hope of finding a "drug cocktail" that produces results?  After all looks like Chemo for Cancer and the "control" of HIV both use some mixture of chemical compounds/drugs. So until the science catches up, perhaps there is a rational way to find that cocktail?

 

But I'm too much of a scientist to just "try stuff and see what works" without some framework or guide posts.  Anecdotal evidence seems like a starting place, but how do I know if something is "working" in light of mood changes, health changes, the effect of weather, etc. on the patient?

 

Seems like the studies that tested aromatherapy used some kind of periodic or daily testing to measure overall efficacy of the "treatment?"  If memory serves that one study, rosemary and lemon in the morning and lavender and orange in the evening, demonstrated a 22% increase in some cognitive function measured by that test method.

 

So a few questions as to methodologies going forward:

 

1)  What is the "right" active ingredient I am looking for?  Eugenol?  I ask because I looked at that list of essential oils ranked from most effective and did not see a common element.  Now perhaps my research methods are rank amateur in nature, but Wikipedia suggests that Clove Oil is pretty high in eugenol content:

 

Bud Oil: 60%-90% eugenol

Leaf Oil: 82%-88% eugenol

Stem Oil: 90%-95% eugenol

 

So if I am looking for eugenol as an active ingredient, then why don't I hunt down a purveyor of organically pure Clove Oil from the Stems? Or get a supply of laboratory grade eugenol from a chemical supply house?  Wonder why the study scientists didn't use that in favor of rosemary & lemon?

 

 Further, found a link to a textbook that demonstrates the Principle Constituents in various Essential Oils [Table 89.9]:

  

 http://tinyurl.com/p7vh3mr

  

 This would suggest that the key "ingredient" in Bay is cineole whereas

 Coriander,  Fennel, Mint, Thyme, Rosemary and Oregano list no eugenol.

 

So confusion reigns there.

 

2) Then what is the proper "dosage" or exposure requisite to effect "treatment."  I note from reading the afore mentioned study that the researchers used what appears to amount to 2-drops of Rosemary and Lavender to 1-drop of lemon and orange.  Now these were dispersed to the air and the patient was exposed to the first pair for two-hours and 1.5 hours for the second pair.

 

Therefore I am intrigued by the short cut via the concept of sniffing the oil right from the container for a few seconds.  That leaves me struggling with identifying a proper exposure or dosage?  How many "sniffs" is enough?  10 normal breaths for one drop equivalent?  30 seconds?  60 seconds?

 

3) Finally, if I find a good starting compound and delivery method, how do I measure efficacy? Some days the mood is up, some days the mood is down.  Just general observation seems a poor substitute so there ought to be something objective I can use to measure progress or lack thereof, no?

 

Just seems like IF I were a millionaire, I could hire some doctors to guinea pig my patient and find the right drug combination to at least arrest this disease and give time for the cure to evolve from the scientific community.  Maybe my perception is off, but it seems like Magic Johnson survived an HIV infection at the time that such a diagnosis was essentially a death sentence.

 

Then again, perhaps this is just one of the stages of progression along a caretakers path - the stage of hope, refusing to say die and grasping for solutions?

 

I remain inquisitive and intrigued.

 

  


Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, October 16, 2013 10:42 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


Welcome, Biff Calhoun.  I like the way you think. 


 

I can answer some of your questions but not all of them.  Clove does have the highest concentration of eugenol of any essential oil.  Some people have a negative reaction to clove--some suggest because of the use of eugenol in dental operations.  In any case, clove essential oil may be a particular problem in terms of increasing agitation in some people with Alzheimer's disease. 


 

Eugenol is the best compound for scavenging peroxynitrites.  Less effective are geraniol (in lemon essential oil), thymol (sage and thyme essential oils), carvacrol (organo essential oil), and menthol (peppermint essential oil).  In the Jimbo clinical trial, the lavender and orange essential oils were used in the evening for relaxation (the more stimulating oils increase adrenaline levels apparently through the sympathetic nervous system--they can produce "a flight or fight" response; the more relaxing oils depress adrenaline apparently through the parasympathetic nervous system).   


 

Here is some information on essential oils containing eugenol (with the exception of clove essential oil, eugenol is rarely--perhaps never--a major constituent of essential oils). 


 

Other essential oils [other than cloves] that contain eugenol include cinnamon, nutmeg, star anise, lemon balm and basil.  


 

http://www.herbco.com/s-871-natural-pest-control.aspx 


 

For Bay Laurel 


 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19296375 


 

For rosemary 


 

http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Rosemary.html 


 

For coriander 


 

http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/pharmaceutics/2012/263517/tab1/ 


 

I have two studies on the effectiveness of essential oils as antioxidants: one is a more general measure for antioxidant activity and the other is for the inhibition of tyrosine nitration (the latter is critical because it is the peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of NMDA receptors that likely leads to the death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease).  There is a fairly close correlation between eugenol content and antioxidant activity. 


 

Overall antioxidant activity from best to worse. 


 

Clove 

Basil 

Laurel 

Coriander 

Nutmeg 

Black Pepper 

Everlast 

Mint 

Marjoram 

Cinnamon 

Sage  

Fennel 


 

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/27191465_Chemical_Composition_and_Antioxidant_Activity_of_Essential_Oils_of_Twelve_Spice_Plants 


 

Inhibition of Tyrosine Nitration 


 

Bay Laurel           91% 

Coriander            45% 

Sweet Fennel      39% 

Mint                     38% 

Thyme                 36% 

Rosemary            21% 

Oregano                8% 


 

Having no effect: mustard, spike lavender, lavender, caraway, anise, sage, and ginger. 


 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15967593 

 

I have no evidence regarding the equivalency of inhalation versus diffusion. Both may be effective.  A more concentrated infusion of the chemicals would enter the brain through direct inhalation.  At some point, inhalation would become counterproductive, but I don't know how many sniffs that would be. 


 

In terms of a cocktail, such things to add to the aromatherapy might be steamed panax ginseng, coconut oil as a massage oil, curcumin, glucuronolactones, Angelica archangelica, astragalus, and mulberry leaf extract.  One would have to watch for side effects using a combination of essential oils and herbs.  I have known people who have partially reversed Alzheimer's disease using a combination of aromatherapy and herbs. 


 

People have different reactions to the essential oils and can have a different reaction to the same oil from one day to the next.  Things to look for are improved sleep, greater alertness, slight improvements in short-term memory, a smile replacing a blank stare, fewer delusions, more talkative, better sense of time and place, improved object recognition, and greater connectedness to the outside world. 


 

Keep asking these critical questions.  I will answer as many as I can. 


 


terromari
Posted: Wednesday, October 16, 2013 11:02 PM
Joined: 12/15/2011
Posts: 859


I was using rosemary and lemon for LO when I got to nh and lavender when I left. But they put him down for a rest in his braces (to help straighten his legs) and I notice he gets noisy and talks to the TV at his bed. I remember reading a suggestion to use peppermint so I am going to substitute that for the rosemary and see if there is a difference. The psych cut his risperdal at about the same time I restarted his aromatherapy so that is probably somewhat responsible for what I see. He sits up straighter in his wc, talks more and many times his responses are appropriate, he smiles and laughs more, and sometimes his responses actually make sense. Leave no stone unturned is my current philosophy.
Vita99
Posted: Thursday, October 17, 2013 6:30 AM
Joined: 9/4/2012
Posts: 469


Hi Lane, 

Your last post should be a sticky as it is so concise and clear.  I noted previously that lemon balm oil was high in eugenol but I do not see it on your list.  Any particular reason you left it off the list?   


 

I am considering peppermint as my next oil to buy.  Seems it has pretty good antioxidant activity as well as eugenol  It is also easily available and not expensive. The aromas that we are familiar with may also be more appealing to our loved ones.  This is definitely so with my mother.  Lavender is by far her favorite and she requests this when she runs out.  I may try mixing the coconut oil with the lavender for massage.  However I will not be able to test her for ketones afterwards as she would not be too happy to comply.   


 

I know from personal experience that the ketones in MCT oil it your brain very quickly.  I tried a few tablespoons one time and I developed the jitters and have read that others have had the same reaction.  However, MCT oil does not contain lauric acid which may be a beneficial ingredients in coconut oil.  However, MCT oil might be good for testing  how well massage oil will increases blood ketones. I cannot find any info on this through my searches. 

 

I just ran across some new posts on Dr Newports website.  Here is the link      http://coconutketones.blogspot.com.   Sorry, it is not coming up live. There are links to articles and blogs by Drs Seneff and Attia which will add much to our discussion here.    


Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, October 17, 2013 10:07 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


Unfortunately, neither of the two studies looked at the antioxidant effects of lemon balm essential oil, but you are right it does contain eugenol.  It may also contain ferulic acid (there is some disagreement about this). If it does this would partially explain its calming effects.  Or maybe it is primarily the linalool which is also found in lavender essential oil.



THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEMON BALM (Melissa officinalis L.), ITS COMPONENTS AND USING FIELDS 


It is traditionally used as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. In addition, results of a lot of clinical researches have showed that essential oil of lemon balm can be used in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, as antioxidant against negative effects of free radicals and an antitumoral agent and it has positive effect on immune system and stress.




Coconut oil does contain ferulic acid.  I would think that lavender combined with coconut oil for massage would have a positive effect,  Peppermint is a stimulant oil--mainly because of menthol.  Also good for pain.


Thank you so much for the links to the articles/blogs Vita.


Biff Calhoun
Posted: Thursday, October 17, 2013 7:00 PM
Joined: 8/20/2013
Posts: 56


Perhaps this table from the link in my earlier post will help clear up which spices have eugenol in the essential oil.

 

 http://tinyurl.com/p7vh3mr  

 

I am guessing that the compounds are listed in order of decreasing concentration which would mean that the compound that has the highest concentration is listed first.  So if Eugenol is listed third or fourth in the list I suspect it is a relatively minor constituent in the spice.

 

Hope this helps!


File Attachment(s):
Table of Spice Contents.JPG (143031 bytes)

Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, October 17, 2013 10:14 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


This is a helpful list.  Thank you.  I found out from it that allspice and dill seed essential oils contain eugenol which may make them useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. 


 

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cbc/2006/00000002/00000001/art00005 


 


 

Many essential oils can contain a variety of minor constituents so not all of them may show up in a list of constituents.  It is often these minor constituents that are most effective in treating the disease.  Bay laurel is a good example. 


 

The essential oils obtained from fifteen relevant and commonly used plants belonging to Cruciferae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Apiaceae, and Zingiberaceae were screened using an in vitro model of peroxynitrite-induced tyrosine nitration. Almost complete inhibition of 3-nitrotyrosine formation (91% at 300 microg/ml) was achieved only with the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Laurus nobilis. 1,8-Cineol, accounting for a 50% of this essential oil, which resulted as inactive in this model, thus evidencing a major role for the minor volatile compounds present in the leaves. 


 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15967593 


 


 

Article In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Laurus nobilis L. Leaf Extracts 

Biljana Kaurinovic *, Mira Popovic and Sanja Vlaisavljevic


 

Benzene compounds (eugenol, methyl eugenol, and elemicin), present in percentages ranging between 1% and 12%, are responsible for the spicy aroma of bay leaves...


 

Inhibition of NO radicals with laurel extracts is very significant, having in mind the ability to neutralize the superoxide anion radicals as well. The common reaction between superoxide anion radical and nitrogen-oxide radical yields a very reactive peroxynitrile anion (ONOO−) which is very active in reaction of nitrification of phenols - e.g. nitrification of thyrozine causes enzyme disfunctions, and increased amounts of 3-nitrothyrozine were found in various patological states, such as inflammation, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis [22]


 

Vanillin in vanilla and dill seed essential oils is a similar compound that accomplishes much the same thing. 


 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14709027 


 

Essential oils where eugenol is the main constituent (clove as a primary example) are especially good, but essential oils where eugenol is a minor constituent may also be helpful in treating the disease. 


Biff Calhoun
Posted: Thursday, October 17, 2013 11:06 PM
Joined: 8/20/2013
Posts: 56


found this, not sure if it is a repeat or not?

 

The essential oil obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) and three of its main components, eugenol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and linalool (representing 82.5% of the total composition), were tested in two in vitro models of peroxynitrite-induced nitration and lipid peroxidation. The essential oil and eugenol showed very powerful activities, decreasing 3-nitrotyrosine formation with IC50 values of 18.4 microg/mL and 46.7 microM, respectively (reference compound, ascorbic acid, 71.3 microg/mL and 405.0 microM) and also inhibiting the peroxynitrite-induced lipid peroxidation showing an IC50 of 2.0 microg/mL and 13.1 microM, respectively, against 59.0 microg/mL (235.5 microM) of the reference compound Trolox. On the contrary, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and linalool were completely inactive. 

  

   

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15941312

 

Seems to rule out coriander which is 57.6% linalool

 

But key to note, it appears as though eugenol is only about 2.58% of cinnamon bark extract and the cinnamaldhyde the bulk (90.6%) of the rest.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982354
 


Lane Simonian
Posted: Friday, October 18, 2013 10:03 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4602


For cinnamon, the best option is cinnamon from the true/Ceylon cinnamon leaf. 


 

Principal constituents of cinnamon: The more irritant bark is 40-50 percent cinnamaldehyde and 4-10 percent eugenol; the leaf is 3 percent cinnamaldehyde and 70-90 percent eugenol. Cinnamon also contains linalol, methylamine ketone, and others. 


 

http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/natural-medicine/aromatherapy/aromatherapy-cinnamon.htm 

 

http://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/3base/safrole.plants/fafopo/cinnamomum_oils.html 

 

Coriander contains less than one percent eugenol.  Geranyl acetate (which is about 15 percent of coriander essential oil) may be a weak antioxidant. This may be good enough for mice but perhaps not for humans. 


 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23958472 


Biff Calhoun
Posted: Friday, November 8, 2013 9:37 AM
Joined: 8/20/2013
Posts: 56


OK, some lovely anecdotal evidence, some findings and then a question.

 

We have started the aromatherapy including use of clove oil tempered with peppermint. After about two weeks of "therapy", I asked the patient what she had been doing recently and got back the response I knew to be true - reading. I hesitated to ask the next question, because in the past 5-months, that question has been met with a frustrating and irritating, "I don't know!"  But I screwed up the courage and asked, "What have you been reading?"  I was stunned when I was treated to a full 5-minutes of cogent review of an article that was read earlier in the day.  This just has not been possible in the last 5-months!  Yeah, I know - anecdotal evidence.  But that brings me to my "findings!"

 

I have found, while looking around, several of the original papers and implementation instructions for some of the tests given to measure cognitive impairment: Hasegawa Dementia Scale, FAST-1, MMSE, MMSE-2, MoCA.  So I need to further understand these tests and select one, or just the one that can be used periodically.  So hopefully I will have an objective measure of progress as therapy continues.

 

The last item is a question and an embarrassing one at that.  I saw part of Dr. Rudy Tanzi's PBS special that is "going around" right now called the "Super Brain."  Of course he is talking methods to avoid AD and keep the brain going.  No surprise since AD research is what he does.  But he mentioned, in one segment very near the end, and it was pretty fast, a Chinese herb that he said has positive effects on reversing AD. I heard it, but of course can't remember what it was. I claim that it was early AM and I was half asleep, rather than familial expression of EOAD, as my excuse for not remembering the name.   Is anyone familiar with Rudolph E. Tanzi's work to tell me what herb he mentioned?  Anyone see this program and catch the name?