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Case Report of Rapid Reversal of Cognitive Decline: One Person
HowDoYouDeal
Posted: Wednesday, January 29, 2020 11:58 AM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 380


Rapid Reversal of Cognitive Decline, Olfactory Dysfunction, and Quality of Life Using Multi-Modality Photobiomodulation Therapy: Case Report.

Abstract

Objective: We present a case report of reversal of cognitive impairment, olfactory dysfunction, and quality of life measures in a patient with cognitive decline after multi-modality photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy. Background: Transcranial and intranasal PBM has been introduced as a light-based therapeutic technique in which exposure to low levels of red to near-infrared (NIR) light stimulates neuronal function, leading to beneficial neurological effects. Materials and methods: Patient received twice-daily PBM therapy at home using three different wearable light-emitting diode (LED) devices. For the first week containing a mixture of continuous wave mode red (635 nm) and NIR (810 nm) LEDs, a prototype transcranial light helmet and a body pad were used. The body pad was placed on various areas on the lower back and the helmet was worn while seated. After the first week of treatment, an intranasal LED device, 10-Hz pulsed wave mode NIR (810 nm), was initiated in the left nostril twice daily. All three devices were applied simultaneously for an irradiation time of 25 min per session. Results: The patient showed a significant improvement in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score from 18 to 24 and in the Working Memory Questionnaire score from 53 to 10. The cognitive enhancement was accompanied by reversal of olfactory dysfunction as measured by the Alberta Smell Test and peanut butter odor detection test. Quality-of-life measures improved and caregiver stress was reduced. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: PBM therapy may be a promising noninvasive approach for patients with neurodegenerative diseases.


Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, January 29, 2020 1:26 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4935


Each of these studies, even the ones that involve only a single person, get us closer to understanding Alzheimer's disease and how to treat it.

Here are some conclusions from one of the better articles on photobiomodulation:

Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy

In conclusion, PBM [photobiomodulation] exerted a pro-survival action through selectively activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and suppressing GSK3β/Bax pathway.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215870/

This is a critical pathway for neuroprotection whose activation is largely blocked by nitration in Alzheimer's disease.  This pathway's function is needed for the regeneration of neurons, axons, and synapses, for preventing the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, and for ensuring the proper flow of blood and the adequate transport glucose in the brain.

Assis et al. investigated the effects of PBM on muscle injury using 808 nm light (1.4 J), and observed reduced lipid peroxidation accompanied by a decreased COX-2 mRNA expression and an increased SOD mRNA expression after irradiation. There was a reduced formation of nitrotyrosine, indicating that iNOS activity was lower and, consequently, NO and peroxynitrite production was decreased. In conclusion, the inhibition of oxidative and nitrosative stress contributed to a decrease in the deleterious effects observed after muscle injury. 

In the case of Alzheimer's disease, peroxynitrite damages a variety of g protein-coupled receptors (olfactory, muscarinic acetylcholine, serotonin, melatonin, oxytocin, and dopamine) inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters needed for smell, the retrieval of short-term memory, stable mood, sleep, social recognition, and alertness.  

Some of the other enzymes activated by photobiomodulation mentioned in the article are actually bad for the brain (such as NFkB), but it must be that the positive wheels set in motion by photobiomodulation offset the bad.