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Based on a Greek Plant
HowDoYouDeal
Posted: Wednesday, January 8, 2020 12:40 PM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 315


https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pistacia+lentiscus

Sorry, I ran out of time during the week

The "tears of Chios," as the drops of the mastic tree are known to have been, cost their weight in gold during the Middle Ages

 

mastic23-l

Gut-Brain connection:

the chemical in mastic has been found to kill the bacteria that cause stomach ulcers. It is theorized that chewing the resinous gum made from this evergreen plant kills bacteria in the stomach, preventing it from reaching the brain.

"Mastiha" by Ailinaleixo - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

Ancedotal evidence and traditional knowledge are being tested by science.  anti-microbial, from nature, antibacterial,anti-bacterial  the Tears of Chios

 

Harvesting mastic is exhausting work involving methods that have scarcely changed over the centuries, but the substance is a precious commodity that has assured the island’s prosperity. Taking its name from the Greek word mastichein, 'to gnash the teeth,' it appears to have been the original chewing gum, and in turn has given us our word 'masticate.' 

Mastic is used throughout the Balkans and the Near East in various kinds of confectionary, including 'spoon sweets.' These are thick, sugary pastes flavored with fruits or spices and typically served by the spoonful in glasses of ice water. Commonly known as 'submarines,' such treats are the summertime favorites of Greek children. Mastic is also used to flavor a liqueur known as mastika, and recent studies suggest that mastic oil is an effective antibacterial and antifungal agent.


HowDoYouDeal
Posted: Saturday, January 11, 2020 10:00 AM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 315


WHAT OTHER NAMES IS MASTIC KNOWN BY?

Arbre à Mastic, Arbre au Mastic, Lentisco, Lentisk, Mastich, Mastika, Mastix, Mata Charneca, Pistacia lentiscus, Pistachier Lentisque.

WHAT IS MASTIC?

Mastic is a tree. People use the sap (resin) from the trunk to make medicine.

Mastic is used for stomach and intestinal ulcers, breathing problems, muscle aches, and bacterial and fungal infections. It is also used to improve blood circulation.

Some people apply mastic directly to the skin for cuts and as an insect repellent. In dentistry, mastic resin is used as a material for fillings. Chewing the resin releases substances that freshen the breath and tighten the gums.

In manufacturing, mastic resin is used in the food and drink industries and in the production of chewing gum.

POSSIBLY EFFECTIVE FOR...

 

  • Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking mastic gum by mouth for 3 weeks seems to improve symptoms of indigestion, including stomach pain, upper abdominal pain, and heartburn.
  • Stomach and intestinal ulcers. Taking mastic powder by mouth for 2 weeks seems to reduce symptoms and improve healing in people with intestinal ulcers. Also, early research suggests that taking mastic powder by mouth for 4 weeks improves these outcomes in people with stomach ulcers.

 

INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE TO RATE EFFECTIVENESS FOR...

 

  • Crohn's disease. Early research suggests that taking mastic by mouth for 4 weeks improves symptoms and reduces test markers for swelling in people with Crohn's disease.
  • Stomach infection caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Early research suggests that taking mastic gum for 2 weeks helps eliminate H. pylori infections in some, but not all, people 5 weeks after finishing treatment. However, taking mastic gum seems to be less effective at eliminating H. pylori infections compared to taking a combination of the drugs pantoprazoleamoxicillin, and clarithromycin.
  • Gum disease (periodontitis). Early research suggests that brushing with mastic essential oil-containing toothpaste using a sonic toothbrush for 12 weeks reduces plaque buildup, as well as swelling, redness, and bleeding of the gums, in people with gum disease better than using a sonic toothbrush alone.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Muscle aches.
  • Bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Repelling insects.
  • Improving blood circulation.
  • Cuts, when applied to the skin.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of mastic for these uses.
HowDoYouDeal
Posted: Saturday, January 11, 2020 10:02 AM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 315


https://www.atlasobscura.com/foods/chios-masticha

DRINKS

Chios Mastiha

Residents of this Greek island distill mastic sap, the "tears of Chios," into a piney-sweet liqueur.

 
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On the Greek island of Chios, trees weep. These “tears” are piney-smelling, gummy mastic resin, which drips down from small slashes locals cut into the bark. Once wounded, the mastic trees release a sticky, gluey sap, which hardens into parchment-colored teardrops, then drop like small, fragrant pebbles to the ground, where harvesters collect them. Greeks use mastic as a flavoring for sweet and savory food, and as a natural chewing gum. But arguably the most delicious use of mastic is also the most intoxicating: Distilled with sugar into a woodsy liqueur, mastic becomes Chios mastiha.

Floral and fresh, mastiha combines a spicy, syrupy sweetness with a touch of pine and slight alcoholic burn. Chios locals serve it mostly as a dessert liqueur, but outside the island, it’s made its way onto bar menus as an aperitif and a creative cocktail ingredient.

Contemporary Greek myth holds that the mastic trees began crying when the reigning Romans tortured a Christian martyr, but records of culinary and medicinal uses of Chios mastic go back well before the Romans. The ancient Greeks used it to treat digestive ailments. When the Romans did get their hands on it, they mixed the sap with egg, honey, wine, and pepper to make a spiced wine called conditum paradoxum. Later, Chios mastic was one of the most valuable products in the Ottoman Empire, and the Turkish name for Chios, Sakız Adası, literally means “gum island.” When the Ottomans brutally cracked down on the Greek independence movement in the 1822 Chios Massacre, they spared the residents of mastic-producing villages so production could continue.

Today, groves of mastic trees, their trunks Van Gogh–twisted and their leaves silver-green against the Mediterranean sky, grow across the Greek islands. But only the trees of southern Chios produce the coveted resin. This is why the 24 villages of the southern part of the island are known as mastichochoria, meaning “mastic villages.” Since 1992, mastiha has enjoyed Protected Designation of Origin status from the European Union, a certification the EU gives to products which must be made in a particular region to be authentic, in this case, in the mastichochoria. One taste of this liqueur, and you, too, may make like Chios’s mastic trees and cry with joy.

Need to Know

 

Genuine Chios mastiha must come from Chios itself, and there's no better place to taste it then on its grassy hills, surrounded by the sea and by the sweet, breeze-born scent of sun-warmed sap. Those who can't make the trip to Greece, however, can find genuine mastiha in good liquor stores. Look for the PDO label to guarantee authenticity.


HowDoYouDeal
Posted: Saturday, January 11, 2020 10:35 AM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 315


Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, K9H 2P4

Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M3B 2S7 & M4G 3E8
Gatineau, Quebec, Canada, J8T 8J1
Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1L 0H8

Brief Summary:
This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, Phase 2 study, with an optional open-label extension, to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of RPh201 in subjects with mild to moderate AD who are eligible for enrollment in this study.

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03462121…

Regenera Pharma Enrolls First Patient in US Phase 3 Study of RPh201 in NAION, Advances Phase 2 Study in Alzheimer's Disease in Canada

RPh201 development in US supported by Fast Track Designation by US Food and Drug Administration

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/regenera-pharma-enrolls-first-patient-in-us-phase-3-study-of-rph201-in-naion-advances-phase-2-study-in-alzheimers-disease-in-canada-300690851.html

 

RPh201 was discovered by Dr. Zadik Hazan and is a well-defined extract from gum mastic, which is purified, formulated and stabilized in a proprietary process. Regenera has broad, global intellectual property protection for RPh201 related to formulation, composition of matter and use.


HowDoYouDeal
Posted: Saturday, January 11, 2020 5:21 PM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 315


Table 1

Chemical composition of the essential oil of mastic gum

No. Compound tR (min.) % No. Compound tR (min.) % 1 α-pinene 5.4 82.26 11 α-terpineol 13.8 0.77 2 β-pinene 6.4 2.96 12 p-cymene-8-ol 14.1 0.54 3 β-myrcene 6.7 1.92 13 myrtenal 14.2 0.29 4 p-cymene 7.8 0.41 14 verbenone 14.7 1.50 5 limonene 7.9 0.84 15 (E)-carveol 15.0 0.23 6 linalool 10.4 1.50 16 2-undecanone 17.9 0.16 7 camphenal 11.4 0.31 17 β-caryophyllene 22.7 0.73 8 pinocarvenal 12.0 1.25 18 α-caryophyllene 24.0 0.09 9 verbenol 12.2 0.71 19 (E)-Me isoeugenol 25.6 0.07 10 myrcenol 13.2 0.43 20 caryphyllene oxide 28.5 0.14

Lane Simonian
Posted: Sunday, January 12, 2020 9:36 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4751


I have been spending some time trying to find out the chemical composition of mastic gum, but you have saved me further effort.  Pinene is one of the compounds in certain essential oils that may have a role to play in combating Alzheimer's disease.  The two main components in RPh201--masticadienonic acid and isomaticadienonic acid don't stand out as antioxidants, but it will be interesting to see the results of the trial.

Your post reminded me of another Greek island where Alzheimer's disease is extremely rare.

https://www.bluezones.com/2018/11/a-greek-islands-ancient-secret-to-avoiding-alzheimers/

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant compounds are likely the key to stalling the onset of Alzheimer's disease and impeding its progression, although other factors are at work, too.


Lane Simonian
Posted: Sunday, January 12, 2020 10:22 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4751


This may be close to getting to the heart of it:

Beneficial Clinical Effects of Chios Mastic Gum: A Review

As oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, the studies on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of mastic mentioned earlier are also relevant to this topic. While oxidative stress is considered one of the earliest events of Alzheimer’s disease and seems to play an important role in amyloid-beta production, neuroinflammation, and neuronal apoptosis, one study investigated the phenol composition of an alcoholic mastic extract to identify metabolites that have antioxidant activity [59]. The analysis revealed that mastic exhibited cytoprotective effects on H2O2 and Aβ (25- 35) oxidative injury in SK-B-NE(2)-C human neuronal cell lines.

 

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jf504544x (footnote 59)


HowDoYouDeal
Posted: Saturday, January 25, 2020 1:23 PM
Joined: 2/17/2019
Posts: 315


https://patents.justia.com/patent/9364509

Greek Patent No. GR 1,003,541 discloses antimicrobial and antifungal action of the chios mastic oil extracted from the leaves, branches and fruit of Pistacia lentiscus var Chia. Greek Patent No. GR 1,003,868 discloses use of a product derived from Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia as an antioxidant, as a wound healing inductor and as a cytostatic agent.

U.S. Patent Application Publication No 2005/0238740 discloses that certain fractions extracted from mastic resin exhibit anti-microbial and anti-cell proliferative activities. According to the disclosure, a first extract (termed “total fraction” or “whole extract”) contains all the compounds of the mastic gum except the polymer resin; a second extract is an acid fraction containing all the triterpenic acids of the total fraction, and a third extract is a neutral fraction containing all the other terpenes of the total fraction. Additionally disclosed is an essential oil obtained by distillation which contains monoterpenes including β-myrcene. The application discloses pharmaceutical formulations comprising any of the aforementioned total, acid or neutral fractions optionally combined with the essential oil, or synthetic equivalents thereof, or comprising isolated component products or synthetic equivalents thereof, as well as the use thereof in methods for treating microbial infections including H. pylori, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and cell hyperproliferation.


Lane Simonian
Posted: Tuesday, January 28, 2020 10:09 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4751


Here is another plus for mastic gum:

Anti-inflammatory activity of Chios mastic gum is associated with inhibition of TNF-alpha induced oxidative stress

It was found that activity of purified PKC was inhibited by mastic gum in the dose dependent manner down to 60%...

We suggest that mastic gum inhibits one of the main cellular sources of superoxide and H2Oindirectly by blocking the PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidases.

Match this with how amyloid beta harms brain cells:

Malinow’s team found that when mice are missing the PKC alpha gene, neurons functioned normally, even when amyloid beta was present. Then, when they restored PKC alpha, amyloid beta once again impaired neuronal function. In other words, amyloid beta doesn’t inhibit brain function unless PKC alpha is active.

And what is true for amyloid beta is true for nearly every other risk factor for Alzheimer's disease--they do no damage early in the disease unless they cause oxidative stress and inflammation via protein kinase C activation.