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Beer compound could help fend off Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
scma_2007
Posted: Monday, February 2, 2015 11:56 AM
Joined: 9/13/2013
Posts: 112



The health-promoting perks of wine have attracted the spotlight recently, leaving beer in the shadows. But scientists are discovering new ways in which the latter could be a more healthful beverage than once thought. They’re now reporting in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that a compound from hops could protect brain cells from damage — and potentially slow the development of disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

Fang and colleagues note that mounting evidence suggests that oxidative damage to neuronal cells contributes to the development of diseases that originate in the brain. If scientists could find a way to guard these cells from this type of damage, they might be able to help prevent or slow down Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. One compound found in hops, called xanthohumol, has gotten the attention of researchers for its potential benefits, including antioxidation, cardiovascular protection and anticancer properties. Fang’s team decided to test xanthohumol’s effects on brain cells.

In lab tests, the researchers found that the compound could protect neuronal cells and potentially help slow the development of brain disorders. The scientists conclude xanthohumol could be a good candidate for fighting such conditions.

The authors acknowledge funding from Lanzhou University and the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province.



Lane Simonian
Posted: Monday, February 2, 2015 1:18 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4863


Thank you for posting. I am going to highlight a critical general finding from the study:

Fang and colleagues note that mounting evidence suggests that oxidative damage to neuronal cells contributes to the development of diseases that originate in the brain. If scientists could find a way to guard these cells from this type of damage, they might be able to help prevent or slow down Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.

The two main oxidants in Alzheimer's disease are peroxynitrites and hydrogen peroxide (the latter during the mid-stages of the disease). Xanthohumol is a peroxynitrite scavenger and a hydrogen peroxide scavenger.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14565769

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24200239

The key compounds for partially reversing peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage contain a methoxy group (OCH3) that donates electrons and increases hydrogen donation from phenols containing OH and/or methylene--CH2).

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2012/386527/

Thus peroxynitrites are converted into water and a nitrite anion: ONOO- + 2H+ 2e-= H20 + NO2-. Hydrogen donation partially reverses oxidation and water de-nitrates proteins. It is most likely that if they enter the brain in high enough concentrations, methoxyphenols are the key to partially reversing Alzheimer's disease. This includes eugenol via several essential oils, aerosolized curcumin, and syringic acid and ferulic acid in panax ginseng and perhaps xanthohumol from hops.










Lane Simonian
Posted: Monday, February 2, 2015 1:38 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4863


Here is another useful study on the anti-oxidant effects of xanthohumol:

2011;22(5):345-52. doi: 10.3109/09537104.2010.549597. Epub 2011 Feb 25.

The extract from hop cones (Humulus lupulus) as a modulator of oxidative stress in blood platelets.

Abstract

The plant Humulus lupulus is known as the raw material of the brewing industry. Hop cones, rich in polyphenolic compounds and acyl phloroglucides, are widely used to preserve beer and to give it a characteristic aroma and flavor. Hop cones have long been used for medicinal purposes. In particular, hop preparations were mainly recommended for the treatment of sleeping disorders. The antioxidative action of hop cones, however, is poorly understood. The aim of our present study was to investigate in vitro changes in human blood platelets induced by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-), the compound of particular importance for vascular thrombosis and inflammatory process) in the presence of hop cone extract (Humulus lupulus). The antioxidative action of the extract was also compared with the properties of a well-characterized antioxidative commercial monomeric polyphenol, resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) in a model system in vitro. Various biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress, such as carbonyl groups, 3-nitrotyrosine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were estimated. The 3-nitrotyrosine formation and carbonyl group generation was assessed by the use of a competition ELISA test and ELISA test, respectively. Tested plant extract (12.5-50 µg/ml), like resveratrol, significantly inhibited protein carbonylation and nitration in the blood platelets treated with ONOO(-) (0.1 mM). The extract from hop cones, like resveratrol, also caused a distinct reduction of platelet lipid peroxidation induced by ONOO(-). The present results indicate that the hope cone extract has in vitro protective effects against ONOO(-), such as induced oxidative/nitrative damage to the human platelet proteins and lipids. However, in comparative studies the extract was not found to be a more effective antioxidant than the solution of pure resveratrol.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21351847

A good but like resveratrol not a great anti-oxidant.





scma_2007
Posted: Tuesday, February 3, 2015 12:47 PM
Joined: 9/13/2013
Posts: 112



The access to the scientific article of this press release is only available with a fee.
Thank you for digging up these other studies.

The comparative study is interesting, especially about hops.
My mother used to say that drinking a little beer helps her sleep.

It looks like hops are better used for sleep disorders as they are known for, with their anti-oxidant
properties a plus on the side.

Sleeping problem is a major issue in AD, especially in the moderate stage. It is due to the failure of the body's sleep-wake cycle (circadian rhythm disturbance CRD). It is caused by the malfunction of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain and melatonin secretion. Current recommended treatments that work are exposure to sunlight or bright light, daytime exercise and structured activities.

But there are occasional nights where the sleeplessness persists. It is known that taking melatonin in this case does not work, maybe hops from non-alcoholic beer can help. Here is a study of hops as a sleep aid.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849837

The sedative effects of hops (Humulus lupulus), a component of beer, on the activity/rest rhythm.







Lane Simonian
Posted: Tuesday, February 3, 2015 7:45 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4863


I think hops from non-alcoholic beer may very well be a good idea. In addition to improving sleep, hops appear to have a calming influence.

http://extrahappiness.com/happiness/?p=4869

The positive influence of hops may be due to anti-oxidant related mechanisms and non anti-oxidant mechanisms.

Xanthohumol and curcumin are similar compounds, neither of which enter the bloodstream well. These types of compounds in and of themselves may have a limited effect on cognition but a more substantial effect upon behavior.