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Plants against Alzheimer's disease
Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, September 14, 2017 10:20 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


Some plants contain compounds that not only prevent further oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease, they also reverse some of the damage that has already occurred.  This includes increasing levels of neurotransmitters needed for the retrieval of short-term memory, sleep, mood, social recognition, and alertness.  The next step is to identify those herbs by themselves or in combination with other herbs that are most effective at partially reversing the disease.

Natural products against Alzheimer's disease: Pharmaco-therapeutics and biotechnological interventions

 

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress. The current treatment provides only symptomatic relief by offering temporary palliative therapy which declines the rate of cognitive impairment associated with AD. Inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is considered as one of the major therapeutic strategies offering only symptomatic relief and moderate disease-modifying effect. Other non-cholinergic therapeutic approaches include antioxidant and vitamin therapy, stem cell therapy, hormonal therapy, use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medications and selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, inhibition of β-secretase and γ-secretase and Aβ aggregation, inhibition of tau hyperphosphorylation and intracellular NFT, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), transition metal chelators, insulin resistance drugs, etanercept, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) etc. 

Medicinal plants have been reported for possible anti-AD activity in a number of preclinical and clinical trials. Ethnobotany, being popular in China and in the Far East and possibly less emphasized in Europe, plays a substantial role in the discovery of anti-AD agents from botanicals. Chinese Material Medica (CMM) involving Chinese medicinal plants has been used traditionally in China in the treatment of AD. Ayurveda has already provided numerous lead compounds in drug discovery and many of these are also undergoing clinical investigations. A number of medicinal plants either in their crude forms or as isolated compounds have exhibited to reduce the pathological features associated with AD. In this present review, an attempt has been made to elucidate the molecular mode of action of various plant extracts, phytochemicals and traditional herbal formulations investigated against AD as reported in various preclinical and clinical tests. Herbal synergism often found in polyherbal formulations were found effective to combat disease heterogeneity as found in complex pathogenesis of AD. Finally a note has been added to describe biotechnological improvement, genetic and genomic resources and mathematical and statistical techniques for empirical model building associated with anti-AD plant secondary metabolites and their source botanicals.

Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, May 3, 2018 2:20 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


This is one of the best articles that exists on the use of plants to treat Alzheimer's disease.  I am going to include some highlights:

Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Dementia Therapy and Significance of Natural Products and Herbal Drugs

Dementia is a clinical syndrome wherein gradual decline of mental and cognitive capabilities of an afflicted person takes place. Dementia is associated with various risk factors and conditions such as insufficient cerebral blood supply, toxin exposure, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage, and often coexisting with some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and Parkinson's disease (PD)...We conclude that several drugs of plant origin may serve as promising therapeutics for the treatment of dementia, however, pivotal evidence for their therapeutic efficacy in advanced clinical studies is still lacking.

Ginseng

In summary, ginseng constituents are suggested to modulate a number of dementia-related mechanisms, such as amyloid-beta metabolism, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and acetylcholine signaling. 

Curcumin

Curcumin suppresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity, formation of Abeta plaques and protects brain cells from noxious agents (Belkacemi et al., ). In recent years, the natural polyphenols are being implemented in the treatment of different neurological disorders (Pathak et al., ; Hügel and Jackson, ).

Licorice and Yokukansan

Due to their antioxidative properties, several species of Glycyrrhiza were investigated for possible therapeutic effects as neuroprotectants against neurodegenerative disorders such as PD, AD, and dementia. For example, extract from Glycyrrhiza inflata prevents tau misfolding in vitro (Chang et al., ). Thus, the extract of this plant may be effective against various taupathies and AD. G. inflata extract decreased oxidative stress in cell models of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), by upregulating the activity of PPARGC1A and the NFE2L2-ARE pathway (Chen et al., ). Glycyrrhizin prevents cytotoxicity, ROS generation and downregulation of glutathione (GSH), which are elicited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) (Yim et al., ). MPP+ is a neurotoxic substance acting via interference with the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (Yim et al., ). The GSH downregulation is noteworthy, because it is a crucial element of the antioxidative system of the brain (Dringen, ). Increased oxidative stress in dementia is attributed to dwindled levels of GSH (Yim et al., ; Saharan and Mandal, ). Similarly, G. inflata extract was shown to inhibit oxidative stress in vitro (Chang et al., ). The brain cells are susceptible to the oxidative stress. The effect of licorice extract on the oxidative stress may be connected to the beneficial effect of isoliquiritigenin on mitochondrial function (Yang et al., ). Licorice may reduce the damage to the brain cells, improve the neuronal function and prevent the memory impairment by diminishing oxidative stress associated with several dementia types (Ju et al., ; Dhingra et al., ).

Glycyrrhiza is used in various polyherbal formulations. One of such formulations used in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine is yokukansan, which is composed of seven different plants including Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisher. Glycyrrhiza extract antagonizes α2A adrenoceptors (Ikarashi and Mizoguchi, ). Several phytoconstituents of Glycyrrhiza: glycyrrhizin, glycycoumarin, liquiritin and isoliquiritigenin show neuroprotective effects when applied as a component of the yokukansan (Ikarashi and Mizoguchi, ). Isoliquiritigenin inhibited the activity of the NMDA receptors (Ikarashi and Mizoguchi, ). Noteworthy, memantine, an important synthetic drug against dementia, also shows antagonism for NMDA receptors (Danysz and Parsons, ). Moreover, the neuroprotective effect of glycycoumarin may be due to its ability to suppress the pro-apoptotic activity of caspase-3 (Kanno et al., ; Ikarashi and Mizoguchi, ).

In this work, we discuss that a large number of plants have been used for dementia treatment worldwide. The mechanisms of action of the reviewed five prominent representative plants generally involve anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic activity that are mainly associated with the neuroprotective effects of these plants or their bioactive constituents. Some of such naturally occurring compounds exhibit promising potential as alternative therapeutic strategies. For example, curcumin showed remarkable synergetic effects on cognition and oxidative stress, as well as good BBB permeability, when co-administrated with the approved reversible ChE inhibitor donepezil. Moreover, such combined donepezil/curcumin application may be useful for treatment of dementia symptoms, as seen in animal model studies. Furthermore, combined supplement treatment with some mitochondrial antioxidants, such as alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine has been shown to reduce both physical and mental weariness or even to restore memory function in age-related diseases, including AD and different types of dementia, as provided in transgenic mouse model of AD. However, there are still many unknowns in this research area that need to be clarified by planning future studies. The scientific community needs more comprehensive research focused on identifying active ingredients of plants and investigating their mechanism of action. Such research will facilitate clinical studies evaluating the potential of the featured herbal products in dementia treatment. We conclude that further research on plants used in different ethnomedicinal practices and the traditional medicine could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for dementia and, therefore, is of a very high interest.


 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816049/

 



MrsGr8shpr
Posted: Thursday, May 3, 2018 4:20 PM
Joined: 4/19/2018
Posts: 29


If you would prefer, I will post this information elsewhere.

Attached is the Brain and Memory supplement by Andrew Lessman that I have on order.

Since we have started the NAC and L-AcetylCarnitine, the results have been nothing short of spectacular for both of us. DH is having decent sleep (so less snoring for him means more sleep for me). He still has lots of dreaming, which he finds bothersome.

I started using essential oils about two months ago. These provide miraculous benefits for me. DH May come around to utilizing them also. I am applying doTerra Deep Blue — this alleviates all sorts of muscle and nerve pain for me. Also purchased Piping Rock’s Helichrysum and this is just purely indulgent on my part. But it cleared my face up which was diagnosed as a staph infection by our PCP PA approximately seven years ago. I started rubbing Lavender oil (purchased on eBay) on feet at night... this seems to make both of us more sleepy.

DH has been in a more pleasant mood (sometimes rather euphoric) since beginning the NAC & L-AC. Andrew Lessman’s supplements are not scary to me... so I am starting with this brand.

Thank you so much for posting articles relating to research.


File Attachment(s):
FE2B1D56-AD6D-42CF-BC30-D47DCE73A351.jpeg (14837 bytes)

Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, May 3, 2018 11:57 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


I am always happy and pleased to receive good news.  I will look forward to keep hearing about your experiences and results (both for yourself and for your husband).

Sometimes these forums are more like barriers than bridges, but a person should with very broad limits be able to post what they want where they want.  


MrsGr8shpr
Posted: Monday, May 7, 2018 2:21 PM
Joined: 4/19/2018
Posts: 29


@Lane Simonton

I just posted in another thread about my amazingly positive experience with the “Memory and Brain” Lessman product. Also, we are both taking L-Acetyl Carnitine and NAC (Lessman)

I have my DH back! ...or at least it feels like this to me. He is pleasant, and he is communicative and he is “making cognitive connections.”

Thank you for providing a place for results such as this. How could I keep this informstion from anyone else?


Lane Simonian
Posted: Monday, May 7, 2018 8:39 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


I am so pleased that your husband is doing so much better.  I do believe (and there is some evidence to support it) that supplements such as these can lead to significant improvements in cognition and mood especially when given early.  
MrsGr8shpr
Posted: Tuesday, May 8, 2018 7:02 AM
Joined: 4/19/2018
Posts: 29


@Lane Simonton

A realization dawned on me yesterday. At DHs annual physical (4/15/2018) lab results showed mildly decreased glomerular filtration rate. I may be seeing such great results because of a correction of toxins from mild kudney issues rather than a counteraction of MCI/AD symptoms.

The ultimate improvement is yet to be seen. Thank you for allowing me to post this.


Lane Simonian
Posted: Tuesday, May 8, 2018 9:31 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


Thank you for continuing to post here.  

I played a hunch and it looks like it paid off.  Peroxynitrite is a central feature of Alzheimer's disease (and probably mild cognitive impairment).

Widespread peroxynitrite-mediated damage in Alzheimer's disease.

the widespread occurrence of nitrotyrosine in neurons suggests that oxidative damage is not restricted to long-lived polymers such as NFTs, [neurofibrillary tangles] but instead reflects a generalized oxidative stress that is important in disease pathogenesis.

So I looked to see if peroxynitrite plays any role in deceased kidney function and found this:

ROSs [reactive oxygen species] may further interact with NO and decrease its bioavailability, thereby generating the pro-oxidant peroxynitrite, and may impair intrarenal vascular, glomerular, and tubular function and increase the activity of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, eventuating in renal structural damage.

Acetyl-l-Carnitine and n-Acetyl Cysteine (via the formation of glutathione) are peroxynitrite scavengers so you may be killing two birds with one stone.

https://atlasofscience.org/glutathione-a-molecular-whistleblower-for-alzheimers-disease/


Lane Simonian
Posted: Tuesday, May 8, 2018 9:35 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


And just to add:

L-carnitine, an amino acid-derived nutrient crucial to cellular energy management, may play a vital role in kidney disease prevention and management (Kendler 1986; Matera 2003).


Lxy
Posted: Saturday, May 26, 2018 11:55 PM
Joined: 1/20/2018
Posts: 4


MrsGr8shpr wrote:

@Lane Simonton

I just posted in another thread about my amazingly positive experience with the “Memory and Brain” Lessman product. Also, we are both taking L-Acetyl Carnitine and NAC (Lessman)

I have my DH back! ...or at least it feels like this to me. He is pleasant, and he is communicative and he is “making cognitive connections.”

Thank you for providing a place for results such as this. How could I keep this informstion from anyone else?


Hello: What is NAC? Is that another supplement that Andrew Lessman offers?

Also, where do you usually buy the "Memory and Brain" supplement that Lessman sells?

Thanks.


Lane Simonian
Posted: Wednesday, May 30, 2018 2:07 PM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


I was hoping MrsGr8shpr would see your post as she could give you a more thorough answer.

Here though is a partial answer: NAC is N-Acetyl Cysteine which is a building block for a critical antioxidant in the brain--glutathione.

Andrew Lessman does offer NAC.  It appears this supplement can be purchased over the internet, but I am not sure it is available in any stores.


Lxy
Posted: Thursday, May 31, 2018 1:19 AM
Joined: 1/20/2018
Posts: 4


Thanks for your explanation, Lane.

Can Acetyl-l-Carnitine and N-Acetyl Cysteine be consumed naturally through foods?

Or do they need to be ingested via a supplement?

--Larry 


Lane Simonian
Posted: Thursday, May 31, 2018 9:35 AM
Joined: 12/12/2011
Posts: 4262


Yes, both can be consumed naturally through foods:

https://www.drdavidwilliams.com/why-you-need-glutathione

https://www.heart-health-guide.com/Acetyl-l-carnitine.html

In regards to glutathione itself, one of the best food sources is yoghurt (as a result of probiotic enzymes that produce glutathione).  

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891089


 
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