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Alzheimer's Appears to Attack The Neurons That Keep Us Awake CARLY CASSELLA14 AUG 2019
Alzheimer's is an insidious disease. Long before even the earliest symptoms begin to show, plaques of amyloid beta proteins and tangles of tau proteins are already building up in the brain.
Excessive daytime napping is one of the earliest outward signs, but exactly why that might be is hard to say. Some have suggested that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disrupts sleep-promoting brain regions, while others say a lack of sleep is what drives cognitive decline.
Researchers at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) have now put forward a new explanation. Analysing postmortem brain tissues from 13 patients with AD and 7 healthy controls, the team suggests that Alzheimer's disease directly attacks brain regions that keep us awake during the day.
"It's remarkable because it's not just a single brain nucleus that's degenerating, but the whole wakefulness-promoting network," says lead author Jun Oh, who researches memory and ageing at UCSF.
"Crucially this means that the brain has no way to compensate because all of these functionally related cell types are being destroyed at the same time."
Disrupted sleep has been associated with β-amyloid plaques before, but so far, little is known about the role of the other main AD marker, the tau protein tangles. Mounting evidence in the past few years has suggested this is an important avenue to explore.
Treatment with T-PEMFs improved mobility and activities of daily living scores for clinical effect size only in the active group, indicating a positive treatment response for motor symptoms.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields induce a protective and anti-inflammatory effect in the nervous system primarily due to growth factor upregulation that possibly abates neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated treatment effects of transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields (T-PEMFs) on quality of life in PD and the feasibility and safety of this treatment.
In this double-blinded clinical study, 97 participants with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-IV), on optimal medical anti-parkinsonian treatment, were block randomized (3:3) to either active (n = 49) or placebo treatment (n = 48). Treatment with T-PEMFs entailed one daily 30-min home treatment for eight consecutive weeks. The 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) was assessed at baseline and endpoint. A special questionnaire was used to profile adverse events by interviewing the participants over the full treatment period. Treatment compliance was accounted for by daily treatment registration.
The active group with respect to clinical effect size for the two dimensions, i.e. mobility and activities of daily living, compared with the placebo group. No between-group differences were found for the remaining PDQ-39 dimensions. There were no between-group difference in adverse events. Treatment compliance was 97.9%.
Treatment with T-PEMFs improved mobility and activities of daily living scores for clinical effect size only in the active group, indicating a positive treatment response for motor symptoms. No difference was found between the two groups for the remaining PDQ-39 dimensions. The treatment had no or only mild adverse events and was performed with high compliance.
© 2018 EAN.
Parkinson's disease; non-motor symptoms; pulsed electromagnetic fields; quality of life; randomized clinical trial
Rio Grande Neurosciences, Inc. manufactures pulsed electromagnetic field therapy devices for the treatment of neuroinflammation. The company develops traumatic brain injury therapeutics; current disposable clinical treatment units; and devices for concussion clinical trials. Rio Grande Neurosciences, Inc. was founded in 2011 and is based in San Francisco, California.
Endonovo produces Sofpulse, Sofpulse testing in New Mexico for Traumatic Brain injury, recruiting.
What is the difference between Pulsed Electromagnetic Stimulation treating arthritis, bone healing, and the magnetic wave cap, considering Actipatch (?) did a trial for migraine sufferers, and people with PSP (European Parkinsons) have a several symptoms in common w AD
Trebbastoni A1, Raccah R, de Lena C, Zangen A, Inghilleri M.
The H-coils are a new development in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research, allowing direct stimulation of deeper neuronal pathways than does standard TMS. This study assessed possible health risks, and some cognitive and emotional effects, of two H-coil versions designed to stimulate deep portions of the prefrontal cortex, using several stimulation frequencies.
Healthy volunteers (n=32) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: each of two H-coil designs (H1/H2), standard figure-8 coil, and sham-coil control. Subjects were tested in a pre-post design, during three increasing (single pulses, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz) stimulation sessions, as well as 24-36 h after the last stimulation.
The major finding of the present study is that stimulation with the novel H-coils was well tolerated, with no adverse physical or neurological outcomes. Computerized cognitive tests found no deterioration in cognitive functions, except for a transient short-term effect of the H1-coil on spatial recognition memory on the first day of rTMS (but not in the following treatment days). On the other hand, spatial working memory was transiently improved by the H2-coil treatment. Finally, the questionnaires showed no significant emotional or mood alterations, except for reports on 'detachment' experienced by subjects treated with the H1-coil.
This study provides additional evidence for the feasibility and safety of the two H-coil designs (H1/H2).
The H-coils offer a safe new tool with potential for both research and clinical applications for psychiatric and neurological disorders associated with dysfunctions of deep brain regions.
[Indexed for MEDLINE].
Media from Storz Medical in Switzerland